Passive Diffusion

A membrane serves as a selective barrier between different phases, such as inside and outside a cell or between two compartments within a cell. Material can cross this membrane through various mechanisms: 1. Passive Transport: This involves the movement of substances across the membrane without the input of energy. Diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion are […]

Pharmaceutical Tablet Manufacturing

Powder compression, the primary technique for tablets manufacturing, involves applying pressure to force particles together in a confined space, creating a porous, solid specimen with defined geometry. This process occurs within a die using upper and lower punches to apply compressive force, resulting in a reduction in volume and the formation of bonds between particles. […]

Diffusion

Diffusion is the process by which individual molecules of a substance move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration due to random molecular motion, driven by a concentration gradient. Diffusion holds significant importance in pharmaceutical operations. Additionally, it serves as a crucial component in a wide range of applications. These […]

Granulation

Granulation is the process where in individual dry powder particles are bound together to form larger multiparticulate structures known as granules (Fig. 1.0).In pharmaceutical applications, these granules typically range in size from 0.2 mm to 4.0 mm, depending on their intended use. Granules destined for tablet production generally fall towards the smaller end of this […]