The caffeine structure

Organic Molecular Complexes

An organic coordination compound, or molecular complex, is composed of constituents held together by weak interactions such as donor–acceptor forces or hydrogen bonds. Molecular complexes can be classified according to: The bonding or interaction between substrate and ligand (e.g., electrostatic interaction, charge-transfer, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction). Type of substrate and ligand forming the complex […]


Complexation is a chemical process in which molecules or molecular assemblies are formed by the combination of substrates (S) and ligands (L). Most often complex (SmLn) formation is a reversible process: $$ m.S+n.L⇄S_mL_n $$ where m substrate molecules, associate with n ligand molecules to form a complex of m:n stoichiometry. In this context, complex formation, […]

Cutter mill

Cutter Mill

The cutter mill (Fig. 1) is very similar to the hammer mill in operation, except that sharp blades are used in place of blunt surfaces. Hammer and cutter mills are especially suited for brittle or fibrous materials and can be considered the most commonly encountered mills for roller compaction (in dry granulation). Construction and Working […]

Pin mill

Pin Mill

Pin mill is a method of comminution that acts by producing particle impact and attrition. Particle size reduction occurs by impaction with the pins and by attrition between pins as the particles travel outwards under the influence of centrifugal force. Construction and Working of Pin Mill Pin mills consist of two horizontal steel plates with […]